Sunday, 14 December 2014

Macedonia is NOT Greek

 None of these faces matches Greeks today.

I did personaly came to same conclusion that
Greeks are not Macedonians just by observing mosaics and statues.

Difference between todays Greeks and todays Macedonians
are in their hair colours and facial features.
Macedonians ARE the people that call themselves Makedonians today with all of
the facial features as they always had.

Bias author speaks about is contradiction between facts of ancient tribes or peoples in those days, for example Ahayans sacked Troja in Lydia but it is Macedonian King Phillip that took evidence of bloodshead ,rape and murder of the Hellenic/Illinic Goddess into his grave.
But the modern Histerians say that is all Greek.
Trachians who already have been on Helm/Balkan cause they arrived in first invasive wave on Helm registrated around bronze age with their horses slaying terryfied populace in most horrific manner but they haven't been the ones to des-troy Troja, they became alies of Troja during Ahayan attack.
But they are also Greek.
Later on when Ahayans or Pelasgians formed ancient Macedonia they fought Greeks and never once did they equated themselves with Greeks (whoever they were).
But in the books it is all Greek....

Makedonians = Pelasgians

Both Pelasgians and Thracians are denominated as Scytians.

Macedonia is NOT Greek
Diodorus Siculus
Ancient Greek Historian
The ancient Greek historian Diodorus wrote much of the history of Macedonia from the times of Philip II and Alexander the Great up to the last Macedonian king Perseus. In his writings, Diodorus is clear that the ancient Macedonians were a distinct nation, not related to any of the Balkan peoples (Greeks, Thracians, and Illyrians). The below 40 quotes from his books XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXXI, and XXXII are indeed an overwhelming proof of that:

[1] For even Greeks – Thespians, Plataeans and Orchomenians, and some other hostile to the Thebans who had joined the king (of the Macedonians) in the campaign. 17.13.5.

[2] For many days the king lay helpless under his treatment, and the Greeks who had been settled in Bactria and Sogdiana, who had long borne unhappily their sojourn among peoples of another race and now received word that the king has died of his wounds, revolted against the Macedonians. They formed a band of 3000 men and underwent great hardship on their homeward route. Later they were massacred by the Macedonians after Alexander’s death. 17.99.5-6.

[3] The Macedonians and Alexander backed Coragus because he was one of them while the Greeks favored Dioxippus. 17.100.4.

[4] Then the Macedonian (Coragus) poised his long lance and charged, but the Greek (Dioxippus), when he came within reach, struck the spear with his club and shuttered it. After these two defeats, Coragus was reduced to continuing the battle with sword, but as he reached for it, the other leaped upon him and seized his swordhand with his left, while with his right hand the Greek upset the Macedonian’s balance and made him lose his footing. 17.100.6-7

[5] He (Alexander the Great) was plainly disappointed at the defeat of the Macedonian. Dioxippus released his fallen opponent, and left the field winner of the resounding victory and bedecked with ribands by his compatriots, as having brought a common glory to all Greeks. 17.101.1-2.

[6] From Europe, the Greek cities AND the Macedonians also sent embassies, as well as the Illyrians and most of those who dwell about the Adriatic Sea, the Thracian peoples and even those of their neighbors the Gauls, whose people became known then first in the Greek world. 17.113.2.

[7] When Perdiccas heard of the revolt of the Greeks, he drew by lot from the Macedonians 3000 infantry and 800 horsemen. 18.7.3

[8] They (the Greeks) had more then 20000 foot soldiers and 3000 horse. 18.7.2. 3000 of these 23000 Greeks were led by a "traitor" who "left his allies without warning and withdrew to e certain hill, taking his 3000 men". 18.7.6.

[9] When oaths to this effect had been sworn and the Greeks were interspersed among the Macedonians, Pithon was greatly pleased, seeing that the affair was progressing according to his intentions; but the Macedonians remembering the orders of Perdiccas and having no regard for the oaths that had been sworn, broke faith with the Greeks. Setting upon them unexpectedly and catching them off their ground, they shot them all down with javelins and seized their possessions as plunder. Pithon then, cheated of his hopes, came back with the Macedonians to Perdiccas. 18.7.8-9

[10] When Alexander died a short time thereafter and left no sons as successors to the kingdom, the Athenians ventured to assert their liberty (from Macedonia) and to claim the leadership of the Greeks. 18.9.1

[11] When the Aetolians listened to him gladly they gave him 7000 soldiers, he sent to the Locrians and the Phocians and the other neighboring peoples and urged them to assist their freedom and rid Greece of the Macedonian despotism. 18.9.5.

[12] The decree of the Assembly of Athens: "people should assume responsibility for the common freedom of the Greeks and liberate the cities that were subject to (Macedonian) garrisons; that they should prepare 40 quadriremes and 200 triremes (ships); that all Athenians up to age of 40 should be enrolled; that three tribes should guard Attica, and that the other seven should be ready for campaign beyond the frontier; that envoys should be sent to visit the Greek cities and tell them that formerly the Athenian people, convinced that all Greece was the common fatherland of the Greeks, had fought by see against those (Macedonian) barbarians who had invaded Greece to enslave her, and that now too Athens believed it necessary to risk lives and money and ships in defense of the common safety of the Greeks." 18.10.1-3.

[13] Of the rest of the Greeks, some were well disposed toward the Macedonians, others remained neutral. 18.11.1

[14] A few of the Illyrians and the Thracians joined the alliance (with the Greeks) because of their hatred of the Macedonians. 18.11.1-2

[15] As soon as, however, as he learned of the movement concerted against him by the Greeks, he left Sippas as general of Macedonia, giving him a significant army and bidding him enlist as many men as possible, while he himself, taking 13000 Macedonians and 600 horsemen, set out from Macedonia to Thessaly (into Greece). 18.12.2

[16] Now that this great force had been added to the Athenians, the Greeks, who far outnumbered the Macedonians, were successful. 18.12.4

[17] As the Macedonians defended themselves stoutly, many of the Greeks who pushed on rashly were killed. 18.12.1-2

[18] Antiphilus, the Greek commander, having defeated the Macedonians in a glorious battle played a waiting game, remaining in Thessaly and watching for the enemy to move. The affairs of the Greeks were thus in thriving condition, but since the Macedonians had command of the sea, the Athenians made ready other ships… 18.15.7-8.

[19] Then after such a combat I have described, the battle was broken off, as the scales of victory swung in favour of the Macedonians. More then 500 of the Greeks were killed in the battle, and 130 of the Macedonians. 18.17.5

[20] The commandant of the garrison of that city, Archelaus, who was a Macedonian by RACE, welcomed Attalus and surrendered the city to him… 18.37.3-4.

[21] Seleucus and Pithon again tried to persuade the Macedonians to remove Eumenes from his command and to cease preferring against their own interests a man who was a foreigner and who had killed very many Macedonians. 19.13.1

[22] Peucestes (Macedonian commander) had 10000 Persian archers and slingers, 3000 men of every origin equipped for service in the Macedonian array, 600 Greek and Thracian cavalry and more then 400 Persian horsemen. 19.14.5.

[23] Although the risk involved in all these circumstances was clear, nonetheless she decided to remain there, hoping that many Greeks AND Macedonians would come to her aid by sea. 19.35.6.

[24] Then, after making a truce with the other Boeotians and leaving Eupolemus as general for Greece, he went into Macedonia, for he was apprehensive of the enemy’s crossings. 19.77.5-6

[25] In this year Antigonus ordered his general Ptolemaeus into Greece to set the Greeks free… 19.77.2

[26] Ptolemaeus, the general of Antigonus, had been placed in charge of affairs thoughout Greece; 19.87.3 (not in Macedonia).

[27] This was the situation in Asia and in Greece AND Macedonia. 19.105.4

[28] And first he planned to establish order in the affairs of Greece … and then go on against Macedonia itself if Cassander did not march against him. 20.102.1

[29] While these held office, Cassander, king of the Macedonians, on seeing that the power of the Greeks was increasing and that the whole war was directed against Macedonia, became much alarmed about the future. 20.106.1-2

[30] Demetrius was followed by 1500 horsemen, not less then 8000 Macedonian foot-soldiers, mercenaries to the number of 15000, 2500 from the cities throughout Greece. 20.110.4

[30] The utmost spirit or rivalry was not lacking on either side, for the Macedonians were bent on saving their ships, while the Siceliotes wished not only to be regarded as victors over the Carthaginians and the barbarians of Italy, but also to show themselves in the Greek arena as more then a match for the Macedonians, whose spears had subjected both Asia and Europe. 21.2.2

[31] Brennus, the king of the Gauls … invaded Macedonia and engaged in battle. Having in this conflict lost many man .. as lacking sufficient strength … when later he advanced into Greece and to the oracle of Delphi which he wished to plunder. 22.9.1-2

[33] A native of Terentum, Heracleides was a man of surprising wickedness, who had transformed Philip from a victorious king into a harsh and godless tyrant, and had thereby incurred the deep hatred of all Macedonians AND Greeks. 28.9.2

[34] Flamininus held that Philip (the Macedonian king) must completely evacuate Greece, which should thereafter be ungarrisoned and autonomous. 28.11.1

[35] To this Flamininus replied that there was no need of arbitration whom he ha wronged; furthermore he himself was under orders from the Senate to liberate Greece (from Macedonia). 28.11.3-4

[36] When the news of settlement reached him, Flamininus summoned the leading men of all Greece, and convoking an assembly repeated to them Rome’s good services to the Greeks. 28.13.2 (Macedonians excluded from the leading men of Greece)

[37] In defense of the settlement made with Nabis he (Flamininus) pointed out that the Romans had done what was in their power, and that in accordance with the declared policy of the Roman people all the inhabitants of Greece were now free (of Macedonia), ungarrisoned, and most important of all, governed by their own laws. 28.13.3

[38] Philip threatens the Greek Thessalians: "They were not aware, he said, that the Macedonian sun had not yet altogether set." 29.16.1-2

[39] He said, namely, that after seeing the sun rise as he was about to begin transporting his army from Italy to Greece… five day later he arrived in Macedonia. 31-11.2-4

[40] Having as his accomplice a certain harpist named Nicolaus, a Macedonian by birth… 32.15.9

Roman Historian

"It came to pass, that during the absence of exertion on the part of the Greeks, the name of the Macedonians, previously mean and obscure, rose into notice; and Philip, who bad been kept three years as a hostage at Thebes, and had been imbued with the virtues of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, imposed power of Macedonia, like a yoke of bondage, upon the necks of Greece and Asia" [6.9].

"Philip assigned the number of troops to be furnished by each state and only the King of Macedonia will be the commander of their forces. Weather Macedonia was attacked or was in a war with any other power, the Greek troops assigned by Philip had to support the Macedonian army and serve under him as their general. It's obvious that Philip had Persia in mind and knew that this is the point that obligated the Greeks to serve his dream of conquering that empire.  The Macedonian army, which will have the exclusive status, was to be supported by the Greek army and by the armies of the adjacent conquered nations" [9.5.5-8].

"Antipater was appointed governor of Macedonia and Greece" [13.4.5]

"After the death of Pyrrhus there were great warlike commotions not only in Macedonia, but in Asia and Greece" [26.1.1]

Ancient Greek Historian
The Campaigns of Alexander
[1] "Destiny had decreed that Macedon should wrest the sovereignty of Asia from Persia, as Persia once had wrested it from the Medes, and the Medes, in turn, from the Assyrians." [p. 111]

[2] "Our enemies are Medes and Persians, men who for centuries have lived soft and luxurious lives; we of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war. Above all, we are free men, and they are slaves." [p.112]

[3] "When received the report that Alexander was moving forward to the attack, he sent some 30,000 mounted troops and 20,000 light infantry across the river Pinarus, to give himself a chance of getting the main body of his army into position without molestation. His dispositions were as follows:

in the van of his heavy infantry were his 30,000 Greek mercenaries, facing the Macedonian infantry, with some 60,000 Persian heavy infantry- known as Kardakes." [p.114]

[4] [Book II - Battle of Issus] "Darius' Greeks fought to thrust the Macedonians back into the water and save the day for their left wing, already in retreat, while the Macedonians, in their turn, with Alexander's triumph plain before their eyes, were determined to equal his success and not forfeit the proud title of invincible, hitherto universally bestowed upon them. The fight was further embittered by the old racial rivalry of Greek and Macedonian." [p.119]

[5] "The cavalry action which ensued was desperate enough, and the Persians broke only when they knew that the Greek mercenaries were being cut and destroyed by the Macedonian infantry." [p.119-20]

[6] "The same painstaking attention to details is evident in administrative matters. Appointments of governors are duly mentioned, and throughout his book Arrian is careful to give the father's name in the case of Macedonians, e.g. Ptolemy son of Lagus, and in the case of Greeks their city of origin." [p.25]

[7] "In the spring of 334 Alexander set out from Macedonia, leaving Antipater with 12,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry to defend the homeland and to keep watch on the Greek states." [p.34]

[8] "The backbone of the infantry was the Macedonian heavy infantry, the 'Foot Companions', organized on territorial basis in six battalions (taxeis) of about 1,500 men each. In place of the nine-foot spear carried by the Greek hoplite, the Macedonian infantryman was armed with a pike or sarissa about 13 or 14 feet long, which required both hands to wield it. The light circular shield was slung on the left shoulder, and was smaller than that carried by the Greek hoplite which demanded the use of the left arm. Both, Greek and Macedonian infantry wore greaves and a helmet, but it is possible that the Macedonians did not wear a breastplate. The phalanx (a heavy infantry), like all the Macedonian troops had been brought by Philip to a remarkable standard of training and discipline." [p.35]

[9] Modern Greeks, have used this particular passage as evidence of Alexander's greekness. Alexander sent to Athens, as an offering to the goddess Athena, 300 full suits of Persian armor, with the following inscription:

"Alexander, son of Philip, and the Greeks (except the Lacedaemonians) dedicate these spoils, taken from the Persians who dwell in Asia." [p.76]

J.R. Hamilton, Associate professor of Classics and Ancient History from the University of Auckland, New Zealand, writes: 'In view of the small part that the Greeks had played in the battle the inscription (with its omission of any mention of the Macedonians) must be regarded as propaganda designed for his Greek allies. Alexander does not fail to stress the absence of the Spartans.'

[10] Alexander's rationale as to why he would not like to engage the Persian fleet in a battle:

"In the first place, it was to rush blindly into a naval engagement against greatly superior forces, and with an untrained fleet against highly trained Cyprian and Phoenician crews; the sea, morever, was a tricky thing - one could not trust it, and he was not going to risk making a present to the Persians of all the skill and courage of his men; as to defeat, it would be very serious indeed and would affect profoundly the general attitude to the war in its early stages, above all by encouraging the Greeks to revolt the moment they got news of a Persian success at sea." [p.80]

[11] Alexander speaking to his officers: ".......But let me remind you: Through your courage and endurance you have gained possession of Ionia, the Hellespont, both Phrygias, Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia, Phoenicia and Egypt; the Greek part of Libya is now yours, together with much of Arabia, lowland Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylon, and Susia;........." [p.292]

[12] Alexander addressing his troops: With all that accomplished, why do you hesitate to extend the power of Macedon - your power- to the Hyphasis and the tribes on the other side? [p.293] Arrian, book 5.

[13] Alexander continues to address his troops: "Gentlemen of Macedon, and you my friends and allies, this must not be. Stand firm; for well you know that hardship and danger are the price of glory, and that sweet is the savour of a life of courage and of deathless renown beyond the grave." [p.294]

[14] Alexander continues to speak to his Macedonians and allies: "Come, then; add the rest of Asia to what you already possess - a small addition to the great sum of your conquests. What great or noble work could we ourselves have achieved had we thought it enough, living at ease in Macedon, merely to guard our homes, excepting no burden beyond checking the encroachment of the Thracians on our borders, or the Illyrians and Triballians, or perhaps such Greeks as might prove a menace to our comfort." [p.294] Arrian, Book 5.

Quintus Curtius Rufus 
Roman Historian
The History of Alexander - Translation by John Yardley - Penguin Classics  
[1] "Alexander meanwhile dealt swiftly with the unrest in Greece - not only did the Athenians rejoice at Philip’s death, but the Aetolians, the Thebans, as well as Spartans and the Peloponnesians, were ready to throw off the Macedonian yoke. (Diod. 17.3.3-5) - and he marched south into Thessaly, demanding the loyalty of its people in the name of their common ancestors, Achilles (Justin 11.3.1-2; cf. Diod. 17.4.1). And with speed and diplomacy Alexander brought the Thebans and Athenians into submission (Diod. 17.4.4-6) [p.20]

[The "unrest in Greece" encompasses all the city-states in Greece. These city-states were ready to throw off the Macedonian yoke. Here we have a clear delineation between Greek city-states, who were the conquered party, and Macedonia, the conqueror. This quote in a very unambiguous way illustrates how pitiful and ridiculous is the modern Greeks’ position when they claim, or equate, Macedonia as being one of, or the same as, the Greek city states. "Thebans and Athenians into submission" means one thing: Greece was won by the spear; it was a war of conquest. Therefore, modern Greeks’ position that Alexander "united" the Greek city-states, rests on euphemistic foundation, and as such, has no validity with historical justice. Bottom line is, that there was no "unification" of the Greek states by Alexander or his father Philip II. When one "unifies" one does not force submission of the subjects. When one unifies, there is no "yoke" to be thrown off.]

[2] "It was decided to raze the city to the ground as a lesson to all Greek states which contemplated rebellion." [p.21] [Point of interest: "as a lesson to all Greek states". This statement indicates that Macedonia was not, and could not be included in Greece, for Macedonia was the one "giving" the lesson.]

[3] "Alexander also referred to his father, Philip, conqueror of Athenians, and recalled to their minds the recent conquest of Boeotia and the annihilation of its best known city." [p.41]

[4] Alexander, in a letter, responds to Darius: "His Majesty Alexander to Darius: Greetings. The Darius whose name you have assumed wrought utter destruction upon the Greek inhabitants of the Hellespontine coast and upon the Greek colonies of Ionia, and then crossed the sea with a mighty army, bringing the war to Macedonia and Greece." [p.50-1] [Alexander here himself clearly separates Greece from Macedonia]

[5] "From here the Macedonians crossed to Mitylene which had been recently seized by the Athenian Chares, and was now held by him with a garrison of Persians, 2,000 strong. Unable to withstand the siege, Chares surrendered the city on condition that he be allowed to leave in safety, after which he made for Imbros. The Macedonians spared those who surrender." [p.63]

["Athenian" Chares with 2,000 of Persian soldiers fighting against Alexander’s Macedonians. Another example of Greeks fighting against Macedonia. If this was a war to revenge Greece from Persia, Greeks would have not have fighting on the side of the Persians against the Macedonians. The truth is that they hated the Macedonians more for conquering Greece, then they did the Persians.]

[6] "There is a report that, after the king had completed the Macedonian custom of marking out the circular boundary for the future city-walls with barley-meal, flocks of birds flew down and fed on the barley. Many regarded this as unfavorable omen, but the verdict of the seers was that the city would have a large immigrant population and would provide the means of livelihood to many countries." [p.69] [The Macedonians had their own distinct customs]

[7] "As it happened, Alexander had been sent from Macedonia a present of Macedonian clothes and a large quantity of purple material." [p.97] [Macedonian clothes, and purple material. (Macedonian customs 2) Macedonians dressed differently than the Greeks. One very peculiar feature being the kautsia, the well known Macedonian hat.]

[8] "...but the king’s conscience would not permit him to leave his men unburied, for by Macedonian convention there is hardly any duty in military life as binding as burial of one’s dead." [p.100]

[9] Inflamed with greed for kingship, Bessus and Nabarzanes now decided to carry out the plan they had long been hatching. [The plot to kill Darius the III.] "If, as they feared, Alexander rejected their treacherous overtures, they would murder Darius and head for Bactria with the troops of their own people. However, open arrest of Darius was impossible because the Persians, many thousands strong would come to the aid of their king, and the loyalty of the Greeks also caused apprehension." [p.111] [The Greeks remained loyal to Persia and against Alexander and his Macedonians to the end]

[9] Patron, the Greek commander, speaks with Darius: "Your Majesty", said Patron, "we few are all that remain of 50,000 Greeks. We were all with you in your more fortunate days, and in your present situation we remain as we were when you were prospering, ready to make for and to accept as our country and our home any lands you choose. We and you have been drawn together both by your prosperity and your adversity. By this inviolable loyalty of ours I beg and beseech you: pitch your tent in our area of the camp and let us be your bodyguards. We have left Greece behind; for us there is no Bactria; our hopes rest entirely in you - I wish that were true of the others also! Further talk serves no purpose. As a foreigner born of another race I should not be asking for the responsibility of guarding your person if I thought anyone else could do it." [p.112-13]

[50,000 strong Greeks were with Darius fighting the Macedonians, while Alexander took only 7,000 Greeks next to his Macedonians which served as "hostages" and "were potential trouble makers", (Green) which he got rid of only when he learned that the rebellion in Greece against the Macedonian occupation forces there was suppressed (Badian, Borza). The fact that 50,000 Greeks were fighting Alexander’s Macedonians shows clearly that their loyalty and their numerical superiority lies with Darius and his Persians, not with Alexander and his Macedonians. As Peter Green puts it: "if this was a Greek conquest where were the Greek troops?" Alexander’s conquest can not therefore be at all a Greek conquest, but simply a Macedonian conquest.]

[10] "Men! If you consider the scale of our achievements, your longing for peace and your weariness of brilliant campaigns are not at all surprising. Let me pass over the Illyrians, the Triballians, Boeotia, Thrace, Sparta, the Aecheans, the Peloponnese - all of them subdued under my direct leadership or by campaigns conducted under my orders of instructions." [p.121-22]

[The Greeks of Boeotia, Sparta, Aechea, Peloponnese - "all of them subdued"; Alexander himself cleraly considers Greece subdued, not united]

[11] "In capital cases it was a long-established Macedonian practice for the king to conduct the trial while the army (or the commons in peace-time) acted as jury, and the position of the king counted for nothing unless his influence had been substantial prior to the trial." [p.135] [Another Macedonian custom]

[12] Alexander speaks: "The Macedonians are going to judge your case," he said. "Please state whether you will use your native language before them."

Philotas: "Besides the Macedonians, there are many present who, I think, will find what I am going to say easier to understand if I use the language you yourself have been using, your purpose, I believe, being only to enable more people to understand you."

Then the king said: "Do you see how offensive Philotas find even his native language? He alone feels an aversion to learning it. But let him speak as he pleases - only remember he as contemptuous of our way of life as he is of our language." [p.138]

[This is again Alexander himself clearly separates the Macedonian as an independent language and the Macedonian way of life, from the Greek language and the Greek way of life which Philotas had referred to be the diplomatic language in the Macedonian court]

[13] "The general feeling was that Philotas should be stoned to death according to Macedonian customs, but Hephaestion, Craterus, and Coenus declared that torture should be employed to force the truth out of him, and those who had advocated other punishment went over to their view." [p.142] [Another Macedonian custom]

[14] "What they feared was the Macedonian law which provided the death penalty also for relatives of people who had plotted against the king." [p.143]

[15] "While Alexander was in stationary camp here, reports arrived from Greece of the insurrection of the Peloponnesians and the Laconians." [Alexander learns about the revolt of the Greeks against the Macedonians]

[16] "Roxane’s father was transported with unexpected delight when he heard Alexander’s words, and the king, in the heat of passion, ordered bread to be brought, in accordance with their traditions, for this was the most sacred symbol of betrothal among the Macedonians." [p.187] [Another Macedonian custom]

[17] [Alexander attempts to appropriate divine honours to himself] "He wished to be believed, not just called, the son of Jupiter, as if it were possible for him to have as much control over men’s minds as their tongues, and to give orders for the Macedonians to follow the Persian customs in doing homage to him by prostrating themselves on the ground. To feed this desire of his there was no lack of pernicious flattery - over the course of royalty, whose power is often subverted by adulation than by an enemy. Nor were the Macedonians to blame for this, for none of them could bear the slightest deviation from tradition; rather it was the Greeks, whose corrupt ways had also debased the profession of the liberal arts." [p.187-8] [Macedonian traditions, this passage above, without any ambiguity, strongly implies that the ancient Macedonians were distinct ethnic group of people markedly differed from the Greeks.]

[18] "Accordingly, one festive day, Alexander had a sumptuous banquet organized so that he could invite not only his principle friends among the Macedonians and Greeks but also the enemy nobility." [p.188] [Greeks and Macedonians clearly separated]

[19] [The trial of Hermolaus] "As for you Callisthenes, the only person to think you a man (because you are an assassin), I know why you want him brought forward. It is so that the insult which sometimes uttered against me and sometimes heard from him can be repeated by his lips before this gathering. Were he a Macedonian I would have introduced him here along with you - a teacher truly worth of his pupil. As it is, he is an Olynthian and does not enjoy the same rights." [p.195]

[Calisthenes could not be brought in front of the army (the jury), because he was a Greek and not a Macedonian. Callisthenes’ ethnicity is of primary significance here. Similarly, Eumenes’ ethnicity was the primary determining factor in the final outcome. It is also suggested in Plutarch Eum. 3.1, where Eumenes expresses his belief that, being a foreigner, he had no right to take sides in the dispute which broke out among the Macedonians over the succession to Alexander after the latter’s death. Furthermore, in Diodoros’ narrative 19.13.1 Seleucos urges Eumenes’ officers and men to desert him because he is a foreigner, who, furthermore, has killed many Macedonians. The wealth of evidence supporting the fact that ancient Macedonians were a separate ethnos from the Greeks is overwhelming. Eumenes and Callisthenes, being foreigners, foreign born individuals - Greeks, did not stand a chance among the Macedonians. At the end, their Greek ethnicity cost them their lives.]

[20] [Alexander speaks to his Macedonians] "Where is that shout of yours that shows your enthusiasm? Where that characteristic look of my Macedonians?" [p.217]

[21] "Starting with Macedonia, I now have power over Greece; I have brought Thrace and the Illyrians under my control; rule the Triballi and the Maedi. I have Asia in my possession from the Hellespont to the Red Sea." [p.227]

[22] At a banquet prepared by Alexander for the ambassadors of certain tribes from India, among the invited guest present was the Macedonian Horratas and the Greek boxer named Dioxippus. Now at the feast the Macedonian Horratas who was already drunk, began to make insulting comments to Dioxippus and to challenge him, if he were a man, to fight a duel. Dioxippus agreed and the two men fought rather short fight with Dioxippus emerging a victor. A huge crowd of soldiers, including the Greeks, supported Dioxippus. "The outcome of the show dismayed Alexander, as well as the Macedonian soldiers, especially since the barbarians had been present, for he feared that a mockery had been made of the celebrated Macedonian valour." [p.229]

[23] "But destiny was already bringing civil war upon the Macedonian nation." [p.254]

[24] "The customary purification of the soldiers by the Macedonian kings involved cutting a bitch in two and throwing down her entrails on the left and right at the far end of the plain into which the army was to be led. Then all the soldiers would stand within that area, cavalry in one spot, phalanx in another." [p.255] [Another Macedonian custom]

The difference between ancient Macedonians and the ancient Greeks is obvious. It is not a matter for debate. Language, customs, traditions and the every-day soldier’s behavior, all point to two distinct and separate ethnic groups. In short, the ancient Macedonians were simply that – Macedonians, and the Greeks were foreign people next to them.


Thanks to

Thursday, 26 June 2014


  1. -Books to check 
  2. The Slavs by Marija Gimbutas - Jstor

    Marija Gimbutas' The Slavs fills a sorely felt gap. It covers the period of the prehistoric and early Slavs before the formation of the Slavic states in the ninth 

  3. Giancarlo Tomezzoli

  5.  Venetic Palindromes

     1: the bronze cup from „Scolo di Lozzo“ with the Venetic inscription Es 120

    Correct in her transcription, to wit:
    erenownedVenetist,A.Marinetti[1],pp.181-182,asotherVenetistsoen,whenstumped for meaning, is cornered to having to resort to the artificeofselectingsomeveryoddnames for the portions of the inscription she cannot decrypt. She divides the wording of theinscription as follows:


    (“from below upward twining”) clearly indicates the inscription to be a pictorial representation
    of what in due course will sprout from the covered seedlings. By starting the passage at thebottom, he may also have intended to outwit the devil by placing the letters backwards.
    Line One
    Present-day literary Slovene word sequence and punctuation
    English translation

    This is a prayer against Vrag (slavic word for Devil)
    Which really is Virag, Virgo, Deva, Djeva, Div (giant), Magda---she have a lot of names.

    And in this case HORV is Vroh-Vrag,  Vrygian, Brygian, Phrygian etc
    (this makes me lol a lot)

  7. Anthony Ambrozic, Pavel Serafimov, Giancarlo Tomezzoli
    Reputedly the oldest Venetic inscription, Es 120 was found in 1931 in locality “Scolo di Lozzo”
    near Este (Veneto – Italy). The inscription dates to not later than the middle of the 6th century
    BC. A. Marinetti divides the wording of the inscription as follows: ALKOMNO METLON
    ŚIKOS ENOGENES VILKENIS HORVIONTE DONASAN. According to her translation three
    offerors named Sikos, Enogenes and Vilkenis are making a votive offering to the Dioscuri
    (Alkomno) at their temple, which allegedly was located near the locality of Lozzo. The inscription
    is in fact a palindrome starting at the bottom of the inscription. The palindrome’s first line
    can be read as follows: NA SAN ODET NOI VROH SI NE KLI VSE NEG ON E S OKI SNOL
    TEMON MOK LA and is followed by its inverse counterpart running downward: AL KOM
    ON THE LOOM THE DARK MOISTURE; whereas the inverse counterpart can be loosely
    its first line is a hopeful admonition to the dark powers to keep a seed-containing basin free
    of mold. In its second line it provides inside the message the indication of how the inscription
    should be read, i.e. from below upward. The astounding close similarity of the words in the
    palindrome with the words of contemporary literary Slovene language, Slovene dialects and
    other Slavic languages indicates that Slavic was incredibly uniform and undiversified in the
    past, so that Venetic, Slavenetic, Old Early Slavic, Old Phrygian, Dura Europos Macedonian,
    and early Thracian were one and the same language.
    Reputedly the oldest Venetic inscription, Es 120 appears on a well-preserved bronze container.
    It was found in 1931 in locality “Scolo di Lozzo” above the regional road Montagnana
    – Este, approximately 200 meters from the Torre Bridge, at the depth of about 5 meters. It was
    hidden by one of the workers for 30 years. Scholars now estimate that the inscription dates to
    not later than the middle of the 6th century BC.
    The cup and the inscription
    The cup and the inscription (cf. Fig. 1) are fully described in a paper by Locatelli and
    Marinetti [1], pp. 181-182. 167
    The two original handles of the cup disappeared. The inscription is engraved on one external
    side of the cup. It was written in continuo without punctuation. The orientation of the
    characters appears to indicate that it should be read from above downward.
    Correct in her transcription, to wit:
    The renowned Venetist, A. Marinetti [1], pp. 181-182, as other Venetists often, when
    stumped for meaning, is cornered to having to resort to the artifice of selecting some very odd
    names for the portions of the inscription she cannot decrypt. She divides the wording of the
    inscription as follows:
    According to her translation [1], pp. 181-182, three offerors named Sikos, Enogenes and
    Vilkenis are making a votive offering to the Dioscuri (Alkomno) at their temple, which allegedly
    was located near Lozzo, cf. [1], p. 79.
     Some of the other transcriptions and interpretations are presented in [2]. Unfortunately,
    since the inscription is a palindrome starting at the bottom, the interpretation presented in [2],
    although struggling valiantly in varying degrees, offers no better results.
    The palindrome
    The Greek word palindromos meant “running backward”. The palindrome format was intended
    to contain a secret and have eternal potency. In the inscription at hand, an indispensable
    tool to successful decipherment will be grammar. It is astounding how faithfully the inscriber
    follows its Guidelines. Even more astounding is the unyielding tenacity of the Slovene, bucking
    the headwinds of 2,500 years of tidal erosion in every side.
    Starting at the bottom, the palindrome’s first line will be followed by its inverse counterpart
    running downward. Intending the twining plant as an offering, the inscriber in NIS HOR VION
    Fig. 1: the bronze cup from „Scolo di Lozzo“ with the Venetic inscription Es 120.168
    (“from below upward twining”) clearly indicates the inscription to be a pictorial representation
    of what in due course will sprout from the covered seedlings. By starting the passage at the
    bottom, he may also have intended to outwit the devil by placing the letters backwards.
    Line One
    Present-day literary Slovene word sequence and punctuation
    English translation
    Comparing Slovene rendition to the Venetic, one is struck by how close the two languages
    are. Were it not for the word: LA (the Sln.: LE of today) (for Sln. see the Abbreviations Table),
    even the word sequence and sentence structure of both are similar. Only the feature of okanje
    (the tendency to substitute letter O for A and other vowels), in the Venetic grudgingly gives
    some ground to the passage of about 2,500 years. And even there, this may have been due
    to a dialectal peculiarity of the inscriber or the area where the cup was found. Seen in NOI
    (for Sln. “NAJ”), in VROH (for Sln.”VRAG”), in ŚNOL (for Sln.”SNUL”) and in TEMON (for
    Sln.”TEMEN”), in Line One and again in NOMETL (for dial. Sln. NAMETәL) and VION
    (for Sln. “VIJEN) in the Reverse Line, only the feature of okanje can here lay claim to any
    sort of an individual Venetic identity (in juxta-position to the generally Slavic of the time)
    for the language of Es 120.
    Comparison and parsing
    NA: gsl. (see the Abbreviations Table) with meanings ranging from “to, on, upon,
    at, in, up, over”. A prep., it takes either the acc. or loc., here governings SAN
    in the acc. Cf. inscriptions M-01b and P-04a in [3], pp. 32-35 and 48-50. For
    corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    SAN: gsl. for “sleep” and “dream”, ranging from SC. “san”, to R. “son”, and Cz. and
    Sln.“sen”. N., masc., sing., acc., governed for case by NA. For corresponding
    Slavic equivalents see [4].
    ODET: Sln. participle from infinitive ODETI – “to cover”; v., masc., sing. It appears
    from the context that ODET relates to VSE. However, in lit. Sln. VSE is of neuter
    gender, which would predicate the form to be ODETO. What comes to the rescue 169
    is dial Sln., which has ODET as the form for neuter nouns and pronouns. Being
    an artificial creation of as recently 175 years ago, the lit. Sln. has to give priority
    to dial. Sln. in all such cases of conflict. Contextually also, it is unlikely that
    ODET relates to VROH, which is masc. For the relating noun ODEJA - “cover”
    see corresponding Csl., SC., Chk., Mac., Blg., R. and Slk. equivalents in [4].
    NOI: gsl. part. and conj., NOJ and NEJ are dial. Sln. equivalents of lit. Sln. NAJ - “let,
    may, let it, may it”. See NEY in inscription W-010 in [3], pp. 8-10. For corresponding
    Slavic equivalents see [4].
    VROH: gsl., ranging from Sln. VRAG - “devil” to Cz. VRAH – “killer, enemy”, to R.
    VOROG – “enemy devil”. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [5]. N., masc.,
    nom., sing., subject of KLI. See ARAG in ARAGAYUN in the inscription M-
    01bin [3], pp. 32-35.
    SI: gsl., prn., dat., sing. of the lit. Sln. shortened reflex. SEBI –“to himself, to oneself”.
    For corresponding Slavic equivalents see SE I in [4].
    NE: gsl., adv. and conj. – “no, not”, governing SI, KLI. Cf. inscriptions X and XL in
    [6], pp 17-20, 62-69. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    KLI: lit. Sln. KLIJ from inf. KLITI – “to germinate, to sprout”. V. imp., sing., its subj.
    being VROH, and its obj. being VSE. For corresponding Csl., SC., Blg., P.,
    Kash.,Cz., Ll. equivalents see [4].
    VSE: gsl. with variations of VSE and SVE – “all, everything”. Prn., ntr., sing., acc., obj.
    of KLI. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see VES in [4].
    NEG: conj., lit. Sln. NEGO – “but, but rather”. For corresponding Ocsl., SC., Blg., R.,
    Ukr., Br., Cz., Slk., Ul. equivalents see [4].
    ON: sl. – “he”, prn., masc., sing., 3rd prs., nom. Subj. of E ŚNOL. See inscriptions IV,
    [6], pp. 7-11; XXV, [6], pp. 37-38; XXVI, [6], pp.39-43; XXVIII, [6], pp. 44-45,
    XXIX, [6], 45-46, and XXXV, [6], pp.55-57. For corresponding Slavic equivalents
    see [5].
    E: gsl., lit. Sln. JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to
    ŚNOL. Due to its frequent occurrence as aux. v., it can be found in every second
    inscription in [3].
    S: together with Z – “with, from”; S and Z alternate depending on which letter the word
    they governs commences with. A prep. taking the instr. case it governs OKI. See
    inscription W-08, [3], pp. 38-42. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see Z in [5].
    OKI: an arch., pl., instr. form of OKO – “eye”. With an irregular declension, OKO
    now appears only in the nom. and acc., sing. For other sing. cases the root now
    changes to OČES – and to OČ – and OČES – for pl. cases. For corresponding
    SC., Blg., Csl., R., Cz., P., Slk., Ul, Ll. equivalents see [4].
    ŚNOL: lit. Sln. part. SNUL, from inf. SNUTI - “to place the basic thread on a loom”. Its
    aux. is E, its subj. ON and its obj.: TEMON MOK. V., part., sing., masc., nom..
    The only corresponding Slavic equivalents are Csl. SNUTI – “to place the basic
    thread on a loom” and old Cz. inf. SNOUT – “to plan, to warp, to knit”.
    TEMON: Sln. TEMEN – “dark”, adj. of TEMA – “darkness”. Adj., masc., sing., acc. agreeing
    in gender, number and case with MOK. For corresponding Ocsl., SC., R., Cz.,
    P. equivalents see [5]. 170
    MOK a root of a gsl. adj. MOKER – “wet, moist”. N., masc., sing., acc., obj. of E ŚNOL.
    Of infrequent usage, it appears idiomatically in adages like SONCE GRE NA
    MOK “it is getting ready to rain”. For MOKER see [4].
    LA: gsl., lit Sln. LE – “let, may it be, let it be that”. See inscriptions W-01b, M-01a
    [3], pp. 17-20, pp. 29-32. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    Reverse Line
    Present-day dialectal and literary Slovene for each word.
    AL(dial) KOM(dial) NOMETəL(dial) ON ŚI KOS JE NOGE NE ZVIL Kə (dial) E NIS GOR
    VION Tə (dial) JE DONAŠAN
    Today’s literary Slovene word sequence and punctuation.
    The humouring freedom of the chiding rhetorical question in the first sentence, where the
    devil is depicted as almost childlike, is followed by the structures of the palindrome format
    constraining the inscriber in the last. Accordingly, a looser rendering for the word sequence
    as well as interpretation in both Sln. and Eng. is called for. It should also be kept in mind that
    the letters are no longer running backwards and the devil can now read them.
    Looser literary Slovene rendition.
    Strained English rendition.
    Looser English translation.
    Comparison and parsing.
    AL: dial. Sln. for lit. Sln. ALI – “but, however, or”, conj. and adv. Cf. inscriptions W-09
    and W-08 in [3], pp. 37-38, 38-42. For corresponding SC. and dial. R equivalents
    see [5].
    KOM: dial Sln. For lit. Sln. KOMU – “to whom”. It is a prn., dat., sing. of KDO – “who”,
    having no pl. form. For corresponding SC., Mac., Cz., R., Ukr., Br., P., Slk., Ll.
    equivalents see [4].171
    NOMETL: okanje for dial. Sln. participle NOMETL from lit. Sln. inf. NAMETATI – “to
    throw in quantity, to fill up by throwing”. It is a combination of gsl. prefix NA
    – “to, on, upon, at in, up, over” and inf. METATI – “to throw”. For corresponding
    Ocsl., SC., R., Cz. equivalents see [5]. Its aux. is E.
    ON: gsl. – “he”, prn., masc., sing., 3rd prs., nom. subject of SI E NOMETL. Cf. inscriptions
    IV, [6], pp. 7-11; XXV, [6], pp. 37-38; XXVI, [6], pp.39-43; XXVIII, [6], pp.
    44-45, XXIX, [6], pp. 45-46, and XXXV, [6], pp.55-57, and W-010, [3], pp. 8-10.
    ŚI: gsl., reflex. prn. – “to himself, to oneself ”, 3rd prs., sing, masc., dat., relating to ON,
    being a shortened form of reflexive SEBI. For corresponding Slavic equivalents
    see SE I in [4].
    KOS: gsl. – “piece, portion”, n., masc., sing., acc., obj. of SI E NOMETL. Cf. inscriptions
    XLIX, [6], pp. 83-85 and IX, [6], p. 16. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see
    E: gsl. JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to
    NOGE: gsl. NOGA – “foot, leg”, N., fem., sing., gen. The genitive case here is of signifi-
    cance. It singularizes NOGE. As obj., the noun NOGE would normally be in the
    acc. case. However, when a verb in the Sln. is governed by a negative, the rules of
    grammar call for a genitive case. Here, we have the negative NE governing E
    SVIL of which NOGE is the obj. Accordingly, NOGE is sing., because the pl. gen. is
    NOG, as it is also from the dual.
    NE: gsl., adv. and conj. – “no, not”, governing E SVIL. Cf. inscriptions X and XL in [6],
    pp 17-20, 62-69. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    SVIL: ZVIL is part. of inf. ZVITI – “to twist, to contort”. In its relationship to NOGA
    it means “to twist one’s foot, to wrench one’s foot”. ZVITI is a completed action
    counterpart of imperfected inf. VITI. It is governed by NE and has the E between
    K and NIZ as aux. and NOGE as its obj.
    K: Kə - dial. Sln. for lit. Sln. KI – “who, which, that which, the one which”. The meaning
    depends on the person or thing the word relates to and may vary depending
    on the context. Here, it serves as the subj. of NE SVIL E, of E DONASAN and
    E VION. As a relative prn. it introduces the subordinate clauses K E NIS HOR
    VION - “that which is from below upward twining” and K TE DONASAN – “that
    which is being brought to you”. For corresponding Csl., SC., Chk., Mac., Blg., R.,
    Ukr., P., Slk., Ul., Ll. equivalents see [4]. E: gsl., JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of
    BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to SVIL and VION.
    NIS: lit. Sln., adv. NIZ – “down, alongside, below” is the root of the gsl. adj. NIZEK
    – “low”. Preceding HOR – “up, upwards”, it points to the starting point of the
    twining palindrome. For corresponding Csl., SC., Mac., Blg., R., Ukr., P., Slk.
    equivalents see [4].
    HOR: dial. Sln. HOR – “up, upwards” is still in use in some dialects, but the lit. counterpart
    GOR has much wider currency. Cf. inscription G-105, [3], pp. 56-57. For
    corresponding Csl., SC., Mac., Blg., Cz., P., Ul., Ll. equivalents see [4].
    VION: an okanje form of dial. Sln. VIJAN and lit. Sln. VIJEN – “twining, twisting”. A v.,
    part., masc., sing., nom., agreeing in gender, number, case and person with K, its 172
    aux. being E. Cf. inscription M-01b, [3], pp. 32-35. Its inf. is VITI – “to twine, to
    twist”. For corresponding Csl., SC., R., Cz. equivalents see [5].
    T: dial. Sln. Tə for lit. Sln. TI – “to you”, a shortened form for TEBI is a pers. prn.,
    2nd pers., sing., dat.. Cf. inscriptions M-04 and B-01 in [3], pp. 27-29, 52-56. For
    other corresponding Ocsl., SC., R., Cz. equivalents see [5].
    E: gsl., JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to
    DONASAN: the lit. Sln. DONAŠAN is a nonperfective, continuing-action participle of
    inf. DONAŠATI – “to continue to bring, produce, or bear fruit”. Here the verbal
    conjugational inflection indicates an incomplete status of the action. As v., part.,
    masc., sing, nom., it agrees in gender, number, case and person with K. It is
    composed of prefix DO, much employed in idiomatic structures with meaning of
    “up to, as far as, until” depending on the context, and an imperfective, continuing
    -action form of the gsl., inf. NOSITI – “to carry, to bear”. For corresponding
    Slavic equivalents see [4].
    A hopeful admonition to the dark powers to keep a seed-containing basin free of mould,
    the present inscription Es 120 has a parallel in the Old Phrygian, 5th century BC, bidding of:
    E STAT OIAV VUN – “infertility keep out “ – cf. inscription G-144 in [3], pp. 11-12. In fact,
    parallels with Old Phrygian and Slavenetic vocabulary, syntax and morphology generally still
    echo in the preponderance of the wording in the inscription being gsl.
    Especially, the inscription Es 120 attests to the astounding state of linguistic preservation
    of the Slovene language. It is also clear confirmation of the claim by the noted Slovenian etymologist
    F. Bezlaj [7], pp. 88, that “in the 8th century AD Slavic was incredibly uniform and
    undiversified”. Hence, its decryption points to such a state of affairs having been even more
    uniform 1,200 years earlier. It serves as a direct confirmation of the claim in [3], p. 122, that
    whether one appends the term of Venetic, Slavenetic, Old Early Slavic, Old Phrygian, Dura
    Europos Macedonian [6], pp. 74-86, and early Thracian were one and the same language.
    1. Este preromana: una città e i suoi santuari, a cura di Angela Ruta Serafini Ed. Canova,
    Treviso 2002, ISBN 88-8409-056-3
    2. V Vodopivec, Študija prečrkovani in branj najstarejšega venetskega napisa, Proceedings of
    the Third International Topical Conference Ancient Settlers of Europe, Založništvo Jutro,
    Ljubljana, 2005, 121-130
    3. A Ambrozic, Gordian Knot Unbound, Cythera Press, Toronto 2002
    4. F Bezlaj, Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1971, 1982,
    5. M Snoj, Slovenski etimološki slovar, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1997
    6. A Ambrozic, Adieu to Brittany, Cythera Press, Toronto 1999
    7. F Bezlaj, Eseji o slovenskem jeziku, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1967173
    Venetski napis Es 120 na čaši iz “Scolo di Lozzo”
    Najstarejši venetski napis Es 120 so našli leta 1931 v kraju “Scolo di Lozzo” pri Estah (Veneto
    – Italija). Nastal naj bi najkasneje kot sredi 6. stol. A. Marinetti ga razdeli v naslednje besede:
    prevodu trije darovalci, Sikos, Enogenes in Vilkenis darujejo Dioskurom v njihovem templju,
    ki naj bi bil pri predelu Lozzo. Napis je v resnici palindrom, ki se začne spodaj. Od spodaj
    K E NIS HOR VION T E DONASAN. Prvi del lahko prevedemo kot NA SEN ODET, NAJ
    TI JE DONAŠAN! Prvi del nadebudno opominja temne sile, naj pazijo, da seme v posodi
    ostane brez plesnivosti. Drugi del pa je sporočilo, kako je treba brati ta napis, to je od spodaj
    navzgor. Presenetljiva podobnost besed v palindromu z besedami v knjižni slovenščini,
    slovenskih narečjih in drugih slovanskih jezikih kaže, da so bili slovanski jeziki v preteklosti
    neverjetno enoviti, tako da so bile venetščina, slovenetščina, praslovanščina, stara frigijščina,
    makedonščina v Dura Europos in zgodnja tračanščina verjetno en in isti jezik.
    Table of Abbreviations
    Acc. Accusative Mac. Macedonian
    Adj Adjective Masc. Masculine
    Adv. Adverb N. Noun
    Arch. Archaic Nom. Nominative
    Aux. Auxiliary v. Ntr. Neuter
    Blg. Bulgarian Obj. Object
    Br. Belorussian Ocsl. Old Church Slavonic
    Chk. Chakavian Croatian P. Polish
    Conj. Conjunctive Part. Participle
    Cr. Croatian Pl. Plural
    Csl. Church Slavonic Prep. Preposition
    Cz. Czech Pres. Present tense
    Dat. Dative Prn. Pronoun
    Dial Dialectal Prs. Person
    Fem. Feminine R. Russian
    Gen. Genitive Reflex. Reflexive
    Gsl. Generally Slavic SC. Serbo-Croatian
    Imp Imperative Sing. Singular
    Inf. Infinitive Subj. Subject
    Instr. Instrumental case Slk. Slovak
    Kash. Kashubian Sln. Slovene
    Lit. Literary Ukr. Ukranian
    Loc. Locative case Ul. Upper Lusatian
    L. Lusatian V. Verb
    Ll. Lower Lusatian

Thursday, 15 May 2014

HELL Goddess

Words that have same energetic value as hell are
It is obvious that these words describe very opposing MEANings.
same is for almost all germanic languages which are youngest.
in dutch;
in german;

Goddess Hell

By Sjur Cappelen Papazian at -
Hel (“the hidden” from the word hel, “to conceal”) is one of the most misunderstood and misinterpreted Goddess aspects in history. She is described as half white/half blue, or half living/half rotten.

She represents the nature cycle in its entirety, she represents the life and light of spring rising from the roots of the underworld and she represents the dying autumn nature summoning the cold winter, and from this dark times what will lay dead on the ground will be absorbed by the underground to feed a new fertile summer. She is a deep and mighty earth and ice energy who gives life from the darkness – life, death and reincarnation of nature and all living creatures. She is keeper of the underworld and keeper of the source of the origin.

While the other goddesses/giantess, like Freyja, Idunn and Skadi etc., represent specific aspect of life and nature, Hel represent the full cycle of life and death. Althought there is no evidence of a cult of she could have been the supreme Mother nature, and might never had a cult because there were other goddesses who all inherited some specific aspect of Hel and people would rather make a ceremony for different goddesses depending the time of the year or the occasion.

She must have meant something very special since the early Christian church used her name as a scare tactic to frighten the masses into “righteous” acts (instead of allowing free will to guide their actions to do what is right) and to say that all the people who have something to do with heathensim and all of them they chose to define as evil would go to hell.

It seems that Hel actually represents a very old mother earth cult, but that she has been greatly perverted through the years by patriarchal domination. She has fallen from her privileged position as guardian and ruler through years of being represented as an evil, ugly entity waiting to devour and torture lost souls.

To get the real story, we have to go back to the early Nordic people and look this death Goddess in the face. May we learn and dispel the slander of years by seeing her for the protector, judge, and guide that she originally represented.

The old Old Norse word Hel derives from Proto-Germanic *khalija, which means “one who covers up or hides something”, which itself derives from Proto-Indo-European *kel-, meaning “conceal”. The cognate in English is the word Hell which is from the Old English forms hel and helle. Related terms are Old Frisian, helle, German Hölle and Gothic halja. Other words more distantly related include hole, hollow, hall, helmet and cell, all from the aforementioned Indo-European root *kel-.

The word Hel is found in Norse words and phrases related to death such as Helför (“Hel-journey,” a funeral) and Helsótt (“Hel-sickness,” a fatal illness). The Norwegian word “heilag/hellig” which means “sacred” is directly related etymologically to the name “Hel”, and the same goes for the English word “holy”.

Hel is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In addition, she is mentioned in poems recorded in Heimskringla and Egils saga that date from the 9th and 10th centuries, respectively.

In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, her appearance is described as half black and half white flesh-coloured and further as having a gloomy, downcast appearance. Her body and face were described as half in light and half in darkness. She was half dead and half alive. Her face was at once beautiful to look upon and horrific in form.

Hel governs the world beyond that of the living. Hel governs the world beyond that of the living. In magic, she makes thin the veil between worlds. Seidhr [SAY-theer] or Nordic shamans call upon Her protection and wear the helkappe, a magic mask, to render them invisible (like Hades helm of invisibility) and enable them to pass through the gateway into the realm of death and spirit. In divination, her special symbol is Hagalaz, hail: The embodiment of the icy realm She rules. Hel stands at the crossroads in judgment of souls who pass into her realm.

In the Poetic Edda, Prose Edda, and Heimskringla, Hel is referred to as a daughter of Loki, the trickster, and Angrboða, the giantess, along with the wolf Fenrir, the wolf who would destroy Asgard during Ragnarok, and the serpent Jörmungandr, the Midhgard serpent who lies at the bottom of the ocean wrapped around the world with his tail in his mouth (it is he that holds the world together).

Once the gods found that these three children are being brought up in the land of Jötunheimr, and when the gods “traced prophecies that from these siblings great mischief and disaster would arise for them” then the gods expected a lot of trouble from the three children, partially due to the nature of the mother of the children, yet worse so due to the nature of their father.

Odin sent the gods to gather the children and bring them to him. Upon their arrival, Odin threw Jörmungandr into the deep sea that lies round all lands, then threw Hel into the netherworld, Niflheim, and bestowed upon her authority over nine worlds, in that she must administer board and lodging to those sent to her, and that is those who die of sickness or old age. She becomes the ruler of that underworld to which souls who have not died in battle will depart.

As thanks for making Her ruler of the netherworld, Hel makes a gift to Odin. She gives him two ravens, Huginn and Muninn (Thought and Memory). Ravens are messengers between this realm and the next, opening pathways to death’s realm.

In Niflheim Hel has great mansions with extremely high walls and immense gates, a hall called Éljúðnir, a dish called Hunger, a knife called Famine, the servant Ganglati (Old Norse “lazy walker”), the serving-maid Ganglöt (also “lazy walker”), the entrance threshold Stumbling-block, the bed Sick-bed, and the curtains Gleaming-bale.

In Norse mythology, Hel (also called Hela or Hell) is a being who presides over a realm of the same name, Helheim, where she receives a portion of the dead, and to “go to Hel” is to die. As Hel was home to the dishonorable dead, Norse tradition usually referred to the departed souls that were sent there as the Náir (sing. nár – “cadaver”, “deceased spirit”, corpses of the damned).

To avoid confusion between the two, a number of academic studies in Teutonic literature have often referred to this underworld as Helheim (from Old Norse heimr, heima – “abode”, “region”, “world”, Hel’s domain) or Helvíti (from Old Icel. víti, deriv. of O.E. wite – “fine”, “sconce”, “penalty”, Hel’s place of punishment).

In late Icelandic sources, varying descriptions of Hel are given and various figures are described as being buried with items that will facilitate their journey to Hel after their death. In the Poetic Edda, Brynhildr’s trip to Hel after her death is described and Odin, while alive, also visits Hel upon his horse Sleipnir.

In Snorri Sturluson’s Prose Edda, Baldr goes to Hel upon death and subsequently Hermóðr uses Sleipnir to attempt to retrieve him. The “Hel-shoes” are described in Gísla saga as shoes placed upon the feet of a corpse so that the soul of the recently deceased can enter Valhalla (from Old Norse Valhöll ” the hall of the slain”), in Norse mythology, a majestic, enormous hall located in Asgard, ruled over by the god Odin.

In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, Hel is described as having been appointed by the god Odin as ruler of a realm of the same name, located in Niflheim (“Mist Home”, the “Abode of Mist” or “Mist World”), one of the Nine Worlds and is a location in Norse mythology which overlaps with the notions of Niflhel and Hel.

The name Niflheimr only appears in two extant sources, Gylfaginning and the much debated Hrafnagaldr Óðins. Niflheim is a world of ice and fog, and from this realm flows the 11 Elivagar rivers all coming from the one source Hvergelmir. The Elivagar rivers are the link between ice and fire and life was born from them.

Niflhel (“Misty Hel”; Nifel being cognate with Nebel, a German and Latin root meaning cloud) is the name of a location in Norse mythology which appears in the Eddic poems Vafþrúðnismál and Baldrs draumar, and also in Snorri Sturluson’s Gylfaginning. Niflhel overlaps with the notions of Niflheimr and Hel.

In Gylfaginning by Snorri Sturluson, Gylfi, the old king of Scandinavia, receives an education in Norse mythology from Odin himself in the guise of three men. Gylfi learns from Odin (as Þriði) that Odin gave the first man his spirit, and that the spirits of just men will live forever in Gimlé, whereas those of evil men will live forever in Niflhel.

Niflheim was primarily a realm of primordial ice and cold, with nine frozen rivers. According to Gylfaginning, Niflheim was one of the two primordial realms, the other one being Muspelheim, the realm of fire.

Between these two realms of cold and heat, creation began when its waters mixed with the heat of Muspelheim to form a “creating steam”. Later, it became the abode of Hel, a goddess daughter of Loki, and the afterlife for her subjects, those who did not die a heroic or notable death.

Because she accepts all to Helheim, she also becomes the judge to determine the fate of each soul in the afterlife. The evil dead are banished to a realm of icy cold death (a fate that the Nordic people found much worse in telling than a lake of fire) and torture.

This particular aspect of Hel’s realm was the basis for the Judeo-Christian “hell” to which sinners are banished and tortured for eternity. Unlike the Judeo-Christian concept, Helheim also served as the shelter and gathering place of souls to be reincarnated. Hel watches over those who died peacefully of old age or illness. She cares for children and women who die in childbirth. She guides those souls who do not choose the path of war and violence through the circle of death to rebirth.

One of the stories involving Hel is the decent of Balder into Helheim. The Prose Edda details that Hel rules over vast mansions with many servants in her underworld realm and plays a key role in the attempted resurrection of the god Baldr, which Loki arranged for to die by tricking him into a rigged contest. Because the contest was hosted in Asgard Balder could not return to that place in death. His relocation sent him to the only other realm for the dead, Hel’s domain. His arrival to Helheim was welcomed with banquet and festival, proof that not all of Hel’s realm was torturous.

The goddess Frigg asks who among the Æsir will earn all her love and favour by riding to Hel, the location, to try to find Baldr, and offer Hel herself a ransom.

The god Hermóðr volunteers and sets off upon the eight-legged horse Sleipnir to Hel. Hermóðr arrives in Hel’s hall, finds his brother Baldr there, and stays the night. The next morning, Hermóðr begs Hel to allow Baldr to ride home with him, and tells her about the great weeping the Æsir have done upon Baldr’s death.

Hel says the love people have for Baldr that Hermóðr has claimed must be tested, stating: “If all things in the world, alive or dead, weep for him, then he will be allowed to return to the Æsir. If anyone speaks against him or refuses to cry, then he will remain with Hel.”

Later in the chapter, after the female jötunn Þökk refuses to weep for the dead Baldr, she responds in verse, ending with “let Hel hold what she has.”

Most details about Hel, as a figure, are not found outside of Snorri’s writing in Gylfaginning. When older skaldic poetry says that people are ‘in’ rather than ‘with’ Hel, it is a place rather than a person, and this is assumed to be the older conception. The word Hel is generally used simply to signify death or the grave, and the word often appears as the equivalent to the English ‘death’. The noun and place Hel likely originally simply meant “grave”. The personification came later.

Jacob Grimm theorized that Hel (whom he refers to here as Halja, the theorized Proto-Germanic form of the term) is essentially an image of a greedy, unrestoring, female deity and that the higher we are allowed to penetrate into our antiquities, the less hellish and more godlike may Halja appear.

Of this we have a particularly strong guarantee in her affinity to the Indian Bhavani, who travels about and bathes like Nerthus and Holda, but is likewise called Kali or Mahakali, the great black goddess. In the underworld she is supposed to sit in judgment on souls. This office, the similar name and the black hue, make her exceedingly like Halja, one of the oldest and commonest conceptions of Germanic heathenism.

Scholarly theories have been proposed about Hel’s potential connections to figures appearing in the 11th century Old English Gospel of Nicodemus and Old Norse Bartholomeus saga postola, potential Indo-European parallels to Bhavani, Kali, and Mahakali, and her origins.

Hel seems to be connected to other Germanic goddesses: Frau Holde or Holle for instance. In German legends, Frau Holda was the protectoress of agriculture and women’s crafts. Her name and the names Huld and Hulda may be cognate with that of the Scandinavian being known as the huldra.

In German legends, ‘frau Holda’ was the protectoress of women’s crafts, but none so much as spinning, an activity with strong magical connotations and links to the other world. Frau Holda teaches, inspires and rewards the hard worker, sometimes finishing an industrious worker’s reels for her during the night, but she punishes the lazy, fouling their work.

In Swabia all spinning must be finished by Christmas Eve, and no new work begun until the end of the Twelfth Night. Near the Hörselberg the opposite is the case: flax is loaded onto the spindles on Christmas Eve, when Holda begins her rounds promising As many threads, as many good years, and all must be finished by the time she returns at Epiphany, this time promising As many threads, as many bad years.

Festivals are observed for Holda in parts of Germany, generally on Christmas Eve or Twelfth Night, or for the entire Twelve Days of Christmas, and during these times there are often prohibitions regarding spinning.

While governing domestic chores, Holda is also strongly associated with the outside wilderness, wild animals and places remote from man. Frau Holda’s festival is in the middle of winter, the time when humans retreat indoors from the cold; it may be of significance that the Twelve Days of Christmas were originally the Zwölften (“the Twelve”), which like the same period in the Celtic calendar were an intercalary period during which the dead were thought to roam abroad.

Holda seems to personify the weather that transforms the land, for when it snows, it is said that Holda is shaking out her feather pillows; fog is smoke from her fire, and thunder is heard when she reels her flax. Holda traditionally appears in either of two forms: that of a snaggle-toothed, crooked-nosed old woman, or a shining youthful maiden clothed in white. As the maiden in white, her garments resemble the gleaming white of a fresh mantle of snow.

While Holda is generally described as unmarried, and has no children of her own, she is the protectress of children, the kind spirit who would rock a child’s cradle when its nurse fell asleep. She is said to own a sacred pool, through which the souls of newborn children enter the world.

Mother Goose is believed to be based on Holda who is a kindly and wise, if slightly horrific crone who rewards the industrious and punishes the lazy. The goose aspect is from a legend tradition that says that snow is a result of Frau Holda shaking out her bed linens.

Later canonical and church documents make her synonymous with Diana, Herodias, Bertha, Richella and Abundia. Historian Carlo Ginzburg has identified remarkably similar beliefs existing throughout Europe for over a thousand years, whereby men and women were thought to leave their bodies in spirit and follow a goddess variously called Holda, Diana, Herodias, Signora Oriente, Richella, Arada and Perchta.

He also identifies strong morphological similarities with the earlier goddesses Hecate/Artemis, Artio, the Matres of Engyon, the Matronae and Epona, as well as figures from fairy-tales, such as Cinderella.

The name Hludana is found in five Latin inscriptions: three from the lower Rhine. Many attempts have been made to interpret this name. The most steadfast connections are with Frau Holle and Hulda on one hand, and the Old Norse Hlóðyn, a byname for the Earth, Thor’s mother, on the other.

She is also frequently equated with Nerthus, in Germanic paganism a goddess associated with fertility, who also rides in a wagon, and Odin’s wife, Frigg, from her alternate names Frau Guaden [Wodan], Frau Goden, and Frau Frekke as well as her position as mistress of the Wild Hunt. The similarity of meaning and etymology between German “Holl(d)a” and Old English “Hella,” as well as both being described as leading the dead, could point to a link between them.

The name Nerthus is generally held to be a Latinized form of Proto-Germanic *Nerþuz, which is the Proto-Germanic precursor to the Old Norse deity name Njörðr, who is a male deity in works recorded in the 13th century. Various scholarly theories exist regarding the goddess and her potential later traces amongst the Germanic peoples.

The connection between the two is due to the linguistic relationship between Njörðr and the reconstructed Proto-Germanic *Nerþuz, Nerthus being the feminine, Latinized form of what Njörðr would have looked like around the first century.

Jörð is the common word for earth in Old Norse, as are the word’s descendants in the modern Scandinavian languages; Icelandic jörð, Faroese jørð, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian jord. It is cognate to English “earth” through Old English eorðe.

In Norse mythology, Jörð is a female jötunn. She is the mother of Thor and the personification of the Earth. Jörð is reckoned a goddess, like other jötnar who coupled with the gods. Jörð’s name appears in skaldic poetry both as a poetic term for the land and in kennings for Thor. She is usually thought to be identical with Hludana. Fjörgyn and Hlóðyn are considered to be other names for Jörð.

Bynames of the Earth in Icelandic poetry include Jörð, Fjörgyn, Hlóðyn, and Hlín. Hlín is used as a byname of both Jörð and Frigg. Fjörgynn (a masculine form of Fjörgyn) is said to be Frigg’s father, while the name Hlóðyn is most commonly linked to Frau Holle, as well as to a goddess, Hludana, whose name is found etched in several votive inscriptions from the Roman era.

In Norse mythology, the feminine Fjörgyn (Old Norse “earth”) is described as the mother of the god Thor, son of Odin, and the masculine Fjörgynn is described as the father of the goddess Frigg, wife of Odin. Both names appear in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. A number of theories surround the names, and they have been the subject of scholarly discourse.

Hilda Ellis Davidson theorizes that Fjörgyn and Fjörgynn may have represented a divine pair of which little information has survived, along with figures such as the theorized Ullr and Ullin, Njörðr and Nerthus, and the attested Freyr and Freyja.

Theories have been proposed that Fjörgyn may represent an extension of an earlier Proto-Indo-European thunder or rain god or goddess due to Indo-European linguistic connections between Norse Fjörgyn, the Hindu rain god Parjanya, the Lithuanian god Perkūnas, and the Slavic god Perun.

Compareable goddesses


- another version of the name Hel. Also Helle.


- Guardian of the crossroads and patron of witches.


- Frau Holle is the kindly mistress who guards those who do not die in battle. She holds them in preparation for reincarnation.


- Dame Holda is a precursor to Mother Goose. She is guardian of children who die. She shakes her feather matress to make it snow.


- Goddess aspect whose apples feed the gods and give them immortality (much like the Greek ambrosia).


- Special protector and caregiver for the dead. Sits with Osiris in judgment of souls.


- Death Goddess aspect. Destroyer and bringer of life. Kali enables reincarnation and life by destroying the old. Hel represents this harsh Goddess aspect.