Thursday, 26 June 2014

ANCIENT SLAVS



  1. -Books to check 
  2. The Slavs by Marija Gimbutas - Jstor

    www.jstor.org/stable/306494



    Marija Gimbutas' The Slavs fills a sorely felt gap. It covers the period of the prehistoric and early Slavs before the formation of the Slavic states in the ninth 


  3. Giancarlo Tomezzoli
    THE “SPADA DI VERONA”
  4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13889602/THE-VENETIC-INSCRIPTION-Es-120

  5.  Venetic Palindromes

     1: the bronze cup from „Scolo di Lozzo“ with the Venetic inscription Es 120


  6. PALINDROM
    Correct in her transcription, to wit:
    ALKOMNOMETLONŚIKOSENOGENESVILKENISHORVIONTEDONASAN
    erenownedVenetist,A.Marinetti[1],pp.181-182,asotherVenetistsoen,whenstumped for meaning, is cornered to having to resort to the artificeofselectingsomeveryoddnames for the portions of the inscription she cannot decrypt. She divides the wording of theinscription as follows:
    ALKOMNO METLON ŚIKOS ENOGENES VILKENIS HORVIONTE DONASAN

    SOLUTION;

    (“from below upward twining”) clearly indicates the inscription to be a pictorial representation
    of what in due course will sprout from the covered seedlings. By starting the passage at thebottom, he may also have intended to outwit the devil by placing the letters backwards.
    Line One
    Division
    NA SAN ODET NOI VROH SI NE KLI VSE NEG ON E S OKI SNOL TEMON MOK LA
    Present-day literary Slovene word sequence and punctuation
    NA SEN ODET, NAJ VRAG SI NE KLIJ VSE,NEGO ON Z OČMI LE JE SNUL TEMEN MOK!
    English translation
    COVERED FOR SLEEP, MAY THE DEVIL NOT HAVE EVERYTHING GERMINATE FORHIM, BUT LET HIM RATHER WITH THE EYES SUSPEND AS THREAD ON THE LOOMTHE DARK MOISTURE

    This is a prayer against Vrag (slavic word for Devil)
    Which really is Virag, Virgo, Deva, Djeva, Div (giant), Magda---she have a lot of names.

    And in this case HORV is Vroh-Vrag,  Vrygian, Brygian, Phrygian etc
    (this makes me lol a lot)

  7. Anthony Ambrozic, Pavel Serafimov, Giancarlo Tomezzoli
    THE VENETIC INSCRIPTION Es 120 ON
    THE CUP OF “SCOLO DI LOZZO”
    Abstract
    Reputedly the oldest Venetic inscription, Es 120 was found in 1931 in locality “Scolo di Lozzo”
    near Este (Veneto – Italy). The inscription dates to not later than the middle of the 6th century
    BC. A. Marinetti divides the wording of the inscription as follows: ALKOMNO METLON
    ŚIKOS ENOGENES VILKENIS HORVIONTE DONASAN. According to her translation three
    offerors named Sikos, Enogenes and Vilkenis are making a votive offering to the Dioscuri
    (Alkomno) at their temple, which allegedly was located near the locality of Lozzo. The inscription
    is in fact a palindrome starting at the bottom of the inscription. The palindrome’s first line
    can be read as follows: NA SAN ODET NOI VROH SI NE KLI VSE NEG ON E S OKI SNOL
    TEMON MOK LA and is followed by its inverse counterpart running downward: AL KOM
    NOMETL ON ŚI KOS E NOGE NE SVIL K E NIS HOR VION T E DONASAN. The first line
    can be translated as: COVERED FOR SLEEP, MAY THE DEVIL NOT HAVE EVERYTHING
    GERMINATE FOR HIM, BUT LET HIM RATHER WITH THE EYES SUSPEND AS THREAD
    ON THE LOOM THE DARK MOISTURE; whereas the inverse counterpart can be loosely
    translated as: BUT TO WHOM DID HE PILE UP A PIECE? MAY THE ONE OFFERED TO
    YOU, FROM BELOW UPWARD TWINING, NOT COME TO HARM! The palindrome in
    its first line is a hopeful admonition to the dark powers to keep a seed-containing basin free
    of mold. In its second line it provides inside the message the indication of how the inscription
    should be read, i.e. from below upward. The astounding close similarity of the words in the
    palindrome with the words of contemporary literary Slovene language, Slovene dialects and
    other Slavic languages indicates that Slavic was incredibly uniform and undiversified in the
    past, so that Venetic, Slavenetic, Old Early Slavic, Old Phrygian, Dura Europos Macedonian,
    and early Thracian were one and the same language.
    Introduction
    Reputedly the oldest Venetic inscription, Es 120 appears on a well-preserved bronze container.
    It was found in 1931 in locality “Scolo di Lozzo” above the regional road Montagnana
    – Este, approximately 200 meters from the Torre Bridge, at the depth of about 5 meters. It was
    hidden by one of the workers for 30 years. Scholars now estimate that the inscription dates to
    not later than the middle of the 6th century BC.
    The cup and the inscription
    The cup and the inscription (cf. Fig. 1) are fully described in a paper by Locatelli and
    Marinetti [1], pp. 181-182. 167
    The two original handles of the cup disappeared. The inscription is engraved on one external
    side of the cup. It was written in continuo without punctuation. The orientation of the
    characters appears to indicate that it should be read from above downward.
    Transcription
    Correct in her transcription, to wit:
    ALKOMNOMETLONŚIKOSENOGENESVILKENISHORVIONTEDONASAN
    The renowned Venetist, A. Marinetti [1], pp. 181-182, as other Venetists often, when
    stumped for meaning, is cornered to having to resort to the artifice of selecting some very odd
    names for the portions of the inscription she cannot decrypt. She divides the wording of the
    inscription as follows:
    ALKOMNO METLON ŚIKOS ENOGENES VILKENIS HORVIONTE DONASAN
    According to her translation [1], pp. 181-182, three offerors named Sikos, Enogenes and
    Vilkenis are making a votive offering to the Dioscuri (Alkomno) at their temple, which allegedly
    was located near Lozzo, cf. [1], p. 79.
     Some of the other transcriptions and interpretations are presented in [2]. Unfortunately,
    since the inscription is a palindrome starting at the bottom, the interpretation presented in [2],
    although struggling valiantly in varying degrees, offers no better results.
    The palindrome
    The Greek word palindromos meant “running backward”. The palindrome format was intended
    to contain a secret and have eternal potency. In the inscription at hand, an indispensable
    tool to successful decipherment will be grammar. It is astounding how faithfully the inscriber
    follows its Guidelines. Even more astounding is the unyielding tenacity of the Slovene, bucking
    the headwinds of 2,500 years of tidal erosion in every side.
    Starting at the bottom, the palindrome’s first line will be followed by its inverse counterpart
    running downward. Intending the twining plant as an offering, the inscriber in NIS HOR VION
    Fig. 1: the bronze cup from „Scolo di Lozzo“ with the Venetic inscription Es 120.168
    (“from below upward twining”) clearly indicates the inscription to be a pictorial representation
    of what in due course will sprout from the covered seedlings. By starting the passage at the
    bottom, he may also have intended to outwit the devil by placing the letters backwards.
    Line One
    Division
    NA SAN ODET NOI VROH SI NE KLI VSE NEG ON E S OKI SNOL TEMON MOK LA
    Present-day literary Slovene word sequence and punctuation
    NA SEN ODET, NAJ VRAG SI NE KLIJ VSE,
    NEGO ON Z OČMI LE JE SNUL TEMEN MOK!
    English translation
    COVERED FOR SLEEP, MAY THE DEVIL NOT HAVE EVERYTHING GERMINATE FOR
    HIM, BUT LET HIM RATHER WITH THE EYES SUSPEND AS THREAD ON THE LOOM
    THE DARK MOISTURE.
    Commentary
    Comparing Slovene rendition to the Venetic, one is struck by how close the two languages
    are. Were it not for the word: LA (the Sln.: LE of today) (for Sln. see the Abbreviations Table),
    even the word sequence and sentence structure of both are similar. Only the feature of okanje
    (the tendency to substitute letter O for A and other vowels), in the Venetic grudgingly gives
    some ground to the passage of about 2,500 years. And even there, this may have been due
    to a dialectal peculiarity of the inscriber or the area where the cup was found. Seen in NOI
    (for Sln. “NAJ”), in VROH (for Sln.”VRAG”), in ŚNOL (for Sln.”SNUL”) and in TEMON (for
    Sln.”TEMEN”), in Line One and again in NOMETL (for dial. Sln. NAMETәL) and VION
    (for Sln. “VIJEN) in the Reverse Line, only the feature of okanje can here lay claim to any
    sort of an individual Venetic identity (in juxta-position to the generally Slavic of the time)
    for the language of Es 120.
    Comparison and parsing
    NA: gsl. (see the Abbreviations Table) with meanings ranging from “to, on, upon,
    at, in, up, over”. A prep., it takes either the acc. or loc., here governings SAN
    in the acc. Cf. inscriptions M-01b and P-04a in [3], pp. 32-35 and 48-50. For
    corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    SAN: gsl. for “sleep” and “dream”, ranging from SC. “san”, to R. “son”, and Cz. and
    Sln.“sen”. N., masc., sing., acc., governed for case by NA. For corresponding
    Slavic equivalents see [4].
    ODET: Sln. participle from infinitive ODETI – “to cover”; v., masc., sing. It appears
    from the context that ODET relates to VSE. However, in lit. Sln. VSE is of neuter
    gender, which would predicate the form to be ODETO. What comes to the rescue 169
    is dial Sln., which has ODET as the form for neuter nouns and pronouns. Being
    an artificial creation of as recently 175 years ago, the lit. Sln. has to give priority
    to dial. Sln. in all such cases of conflict. Contextually also, it is unlikely that
    ODET relates to VROH, which is masc. For the relating noun ODEJA - “cover”
    see corresponding Csl., SC., Chk., Mac., Blg., R. and Slk. equivalents in [4].
    NOI: gsl. part. and conj., NOJ and NEJ are dial. Sln. equivalents of lit. Sln. NAJ - “let,
    may, let it, may it”. See NEY in inscription W-010 in [3], pp. 8-10. For corresponding
    Slavic equivalents see [4].
    VROH: gsl., ranging from Sln. VRAG - “devil” to Cz. VRAH – “killer, enemy”, to R.
    VOROG – “enemy devil”. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [5]. N., masc.,
    nom., sing., subject of KLI. See ARAG in ARAGAYUN in the inscription M-
    01bin [3], pp. 32-35.
    SI: gsl., prn., dat., sing. of the lit. Sln. shortened reflex. SEBI –“to himself, to oneself”.
    For corresponding Slavic equivalents see SE I in [4].
    NE: gsl., adv. and conj. – “no, not”, governing SI, KLI. Cf. inscriptions X and XL in
    [6], pp 17-20, 62-69. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    KLI: lit. Sln. KLIJ from inf. KLITI – “to germinate, to sprout”. V. imp., sing., its subj.
    being VROH, and its obj. being VSE. For corresponding Csl., SC., Blg., P.,
    Kash.,Cz., Ll. equivalents see [4].
    VSE: gsl. with variations of VSE and SVE – “all, everything”. Prn., ntr., sing., acc., obj.
    of KLI. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see VES in [4].
    NEG: conj., lit. Sln. NEGO – “but, but rather”. For corresponding Ocsl., SC., Blg., R.,
    Ukr., Br., Cz., Slk., Ul. equivalents see [4].
    ON: sl. – “he”, prn., masc., sing., 3rd prs., nom. Subj. of E ŚNOL. See inscriptions IV,
    [6], pp. 7-11; XXV, [6], pp. 37-38; XXVI, [6], pp.39-43; XXVIII, [6], pp. 44-45,
    XXIX, [6], 45-46, and XXXV, [6], pp.55-57. For corresponding Slavic equivalents
    see [5].
    E: gsl., lit. Sln. JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to
    ŚNOL. Due to its frequent occurrence as aux. v., it can be found in every second
    inscription in [3].
    S: together with Z – “with, from”; S and Z alternate depending on which letter the word
    they governs commences with. A prep. taking the instr. case it governs OKI. See
    inscription W-08, [3], pp. 38-42. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see Z in [5].
    OKI: an arch., pl., instr. form of OKO – “eye”. With an irregular declension, OKO
    now appears only in the nom. and acc., sing. For other sing. cases the root now
    changes to OČES – and to OČ – and OČES – for pl. cases. For corresponding
    SC., Blg., Csl., R., Cz., P., Slk., Ul, Ll. equivalents see [4].
    ŚNOL: lit. Sln. part. SNUL, from inf. SNUTI - “to place the basic thread on a loom”. Its
    aux. is E, its subj. ON and its obj.: TEMON MOK. V., part., sing., masc., nom..
    The only corresponding Slavic equivalents are Csl. SNUTI – “to place the basic
    thread on a loom” and old Cz. inf. SNOUT – “to plan, to warp, to knit”.
    TEMON: Sln. TEMEN – “dark”, adj. of TEMA – “darkness”. Adj., masc., sing., acc. agreeing
    in gender, number and case with MOK. For corresponding Ocsl., SC., R., Cz.,
    P. equivalents see [5]. 170
    MOK a root of a gsl. adj. MOKER – “wet, moist”. N., masc., sing., acc., obj. of E ŚNOL.
    Of infrequent usage, it appears idiomatically in adages like SONCE GRE NA
    MOK “it is getting ready to rain”. For MOKER see [4].
    LA: gsl., lit Sln. LE – “let, may it be, let it be that”. See inscriptions W-01b, M-01a
    [3], pp. 17-20, pp. 29-32. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    Reverse Line
    Division
    AL KOM NOMETL ON ŚI KOS E NOGE NE SVIL K E NIS HOR VION T E DONASAN
    Present-day dialectal and literary Slovene for each word.
    AL(dial) KOM(dial) NOMETəL(dial) ON ŚI KOS JE NOGE NE ZVIL Kə (dial) E NIS GOR
    VION Tə (dial) JE DONAŠAN
    Today’s literary Slovene word sequence and punctuation.
    ALI KOMU NEMETEL ON SI KOS JE? NOGE NE ZVIL KI BI, NIZ GOR VIJEN, KI TI JE
    DONAŠAN!
    The humouring freedom of the chiding rhetorical question in the first sentence, where the
    devil is depicted as almost childlike, is followed by the structures of the palindrome format
    constraining the inscriber in the last. Accordingly, a looser rendering for the word sequence
    as well as interpretation in both Sln. and Eng. is called for. It should also be kept in mind that
    the letters are no longer running backwards and the devil can now read them.
    Looser literary Slovene rendition.
    ALI KOMU NAMETEL ON SI KOS JE? NAJ, NIZ GOR VIJEN, NOGE NE ZVIJE, KI TI
    JE DONAŠAN !
    Strained English rendition.
    BUT TO WHOM DID HE TROW TOGETHER A PIECE? MAY HE NOT TWIST A LEG,
    WHICH FROM BELOW UPWARD TWINING, IS BEING BROUGHT TO YOU.
    Looser English translation.
    BUT TO WHOM DID HE PILE UP A PIECE? MAY THE ONE OFFERED TO YOU, FROM
    BELOW UPWARD TWINING, NOT COME TO HARM!
    Comparison and parsing.
    AL: dial. Sln. for lit. Sln. ALI – “but, however, or”, conj. and adv. Cf. inscriptions W-09
    and W-08 in [3], pp. 37-38, 38-42. For corresponding SC. and dial. R equivalents
    see [5].
    KOM: dial Sln. For lit. Sln. KOMU – “to whom”. It is a prn., dat., sing. of KDO – “who”,
    having no pl. form. For corresponding SC., Mac., Cz., R., Ukr., Br., P., Slk., Ll.
    equivalents see [4].171
    NOMETL: okanje for dial. Sln. participle NOMETL from lit. Sln. inf. NAMETATI – “to
    throw in quantity, to fill up by throwing”. It is a combination of gsl. prefix NA
    – “to, on, upon, at in, up, over” and inf. METATI – “to throw”. For corresponding
    Ocsl., SC., R., Cz. equivalents see [5]. Its aux. is E.
    ON: gsl. – “he”, prn., masc., sing., 3rd prs., nom. subject of SI E NOMETL. Cf. inscriptions
    IV, [6], pp. 7-11; XXV, [6], pp. 37-38; XXVI, [6], pp.39-43; XXVIII, [6], pp.
    44-45, XXIX, [6], pp. 45-46, and XXXV, [6], pp.55-57, and W-010, [3], pp. 8-10.
    ŚI: gsl., reflex. prn. – “to himself, to oneself ”, 3rd prs., sing, masc., dat., relating to ON,
    being a shortened form of reflexive SEBI. For corresponding Slavic equivalents
    see SE I in [4].
    KOS: gsl. – “piece, portion”, n., masc., sing., acc., obj. of SI E NOMETL. Cf. inscriptions
    XLIX, [6], pp. 83-85 and IX, [6], p. 16. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see
    [4].
    E: gsl. JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to
    NOMETL.
    NOGE: gsl. NOGA – “foot, leg”, N., fem., sing., gen. The genitive case here is of signifi-
    cance. It singularizes NOGE. As obj., the noun NOGE would normally be in the
    acc. case. However, when a verb in the Sln. is governed by a negative, the rules of
    grammar call for a genitive case. Here, we have the negative NE governing E
    SVIL of which NOGE is the obj. Accordingly, NOGE is sing., because the pl. gen. is
    NOG, as it is also from the dual.
    NE: gsl., adv. and conj. – “no, not”, governing E SVIL. Cf. inscriptions X and XL in [6],
    pp 17-20, 62-69. For corresponding Slavic equivalents see [4].
    SVIL: ZVIL is part. of inf. ZVITI – “to twist, to contort”. In its relationship to NOGA
    it means “to twist one’s foot, to wrench one’s foot”. ZVITI is a completed action
    counterpart of imperfected inf. VITI. It is governed by NE and has the E between
    K and NIZ as aux. and NOGE as its obj.
    K: Kə - dial. Sln. for lit. Sln. KI – “who, which, that which, the one which”. The meaning
    depends on the person or thing the word relates to and may vary depending
    on the context. Here, it serves as the subj. of NE SVIL E, of E DONASAN and
    E VION. As a relative prn. it introduces the subordinate clauses K E NIS HOR
    VION - “that which is from below upward twining” and K TE DONASAN – “that
    which is being brought to you”. For corresponding Csl., SC., Chk., Mac., Blg., R.,
    Ukr., P., Slk., Ul., Ll. equivalents see [4]. E: gsl., JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of
    BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to SVIL and VION.
    NIS: lit. Sln., adv. NIZ – “down, alongside, below” is the root of the gsl. adj. NIZEK
    – “low”. Preceding HOR – “up, upwards”, it points to the starting point of the
    twining palindrome. For corresponding Csl., SC., Mac., Blg., R., Ukr., P., Slk.
    equivalents see [4].
    HOR: dial. Sln. HOR – “up, upwards” is still in use in some dialects, but the lit. counterpart
    GOR has much wider currency. Cf. inscription G-105, [3], pp. 56-57. For
    corresponding Csl., SC., Mac., Blg., Cz., P., Ul., Ll. equivalents see [4].
    VION: an okanje form of dial. Sln. VIJAN and lit. Sln. VIJEN – “twining, twisting”. A v.,
    part., masc., sing., nom., agreeing in gender, number, case and person with K, its 172
    aux. being E. Cf. inscription M-01b, [3], pp. 32-35. Its inf. is VITI – “to twine, to
    twist”. For corresponding Csl., SC., R., Cz. equivalents see [5].
    T: dial. Sln. Tə for lit. Sln. TI – “to you”, a shortened form for TEBI is a pers. prn.,
    2nd pers., sing., dat.. Cf. inscriptions M-04 and B-01 in [3], pp. 27-29, 52-56. For
    other corresponding Ocsl., SC., R., Cz. equivalents see [5].
    E: gsl., JE – “is”, v., 3rd prs. sing., pres. of BITI – “to be”, serving as aux. to
    DONASAN.
    DONASAN: the lit. Sln. DONAŠAN is a nonperfective, continuing-action participle of
    inf. DONAŠATI – “to continue to bring, produce, or bear fruit”. Here the verbal
    conjugational inflection indicates an incomplete status of the action. As v., part.,
    masc., sing, nom., it agrees in gender, number, case and person with K. It is
    composed of prefix DO, much employed in idiomatic structures with meaning of
    “up to, as far as, until” depending on the context, and an imperfective, continuing
    -action form of the gsl., inf. NOSITI – “to carry, to bear”. For corresponding
    Slavic equivalents see [4].
    Conclusion
    A hopeful admonition to the dark powers to keep a seed-containing basin free of mould,
    the present inscription Es 120 has a parallel in the Old Phrygian, 5th century BC, bidding of:
    E STAT OIAV VUN – “infertility keep out “ – cf. inscription G-144 in [3], pp. 11-12. In fact,
    parallels with Old Phrygian and Slavenetic vocabulary, syntax and morphology generally still
    echo in the preponderance of the wording in the inscription being gsl.
    Especially, the inscription Es 120 attests to the astounding state of linguistic preservation
    of the Slovene language. It is also clear confirmation of the claim by the noted Slovenian etymologist
    F. Bezlaj [7], pp. 88, that “in the 8th century AD Slavic was incredibly uniform and
    undiversified”. Hence, its decryption points to such a state of affairs having been even more
    uniform 1,200 years earlier. It serves as a direct confirmation of the claim in [3], p. 122, that
    whether one appends the term of Venetic, Slavenetic, Old Early Slavic, Old Phrygian, Dura
    Europos Macedonian [6], pp. 74-86, and early Thracian were one and the same language.
    Bibliography
    1. Este preromana: una città e i suoi santuari, a cura di Angela Ruta Serafini Ed. Canova,
    Treviso 2002, ISBN 88-8409-056-3
    2. V Vodopivec, Študija prečrkovani in branj najstarejšega venetskega napisa, Proceedings of
    the Third International Topical Conference Ancient Settlers of Europe, Založništvo Jutro,
    Ljubljana, 2005, 121-130
    3. A Ambrozic, Gordian Knot Unbound, Cythera Press, Toronto 2002
    4. F Bezlaj, Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1971, 1982,
    1995
    5. M Snoj, Slovenski etimološki slovar, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1997
    6. A Ambrozic, Adieu to Brittany, Cythera Press, Toronto 1999
    7. F Bezlaj, Eseji o slovenskem jeziku, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1967173
    Povzetek
    Venetski napis Es 120 na čaši iz “Scolo di Lozzo”
    Najstarejši venetski napis Es 120 so našli leta 1931 v kraju “Scolo di Lozzo” pri Estah (Veneto
    – Italija). Nastal naj bi najkasneje kot sredi 6. stol. A. Marinetti ga razdeli v naslednje besede:
    ALKOMNO METLON ŚIKOS ENOGENES VILKENIS HORVIONTE DONASAN. Po njenem
    prevodu trije darovalci, Sikos, Enogenes in Vilkenis darujejo Dioskurom v njihovem templju,
    ki naj bi bil pri predelu Lozzo. Napis je v resnici palindrom, ki se začne spodaj. Od spodaj
    navzgor beremo kot: NA SAN ODET NOI VROH SI NE KLI VSE NEG ON E S OKI SNOL
    TEMON MOK LA, v nasprotni smeri pa AL KOM NOMETL ON ŚI KOS E NOGE NE SVIL
    K E NIS HOR VION T E DONASAN. Prvi del lahko prevedemo kot NA SEN ODET, NAJ
    VRAG SI NE KLIJ VSE, NEGO ON Z OČMI LE JE SNUL TEMEN MOK!, v nasprotno smer
    pa kot ALI KOMU NEMETEL ON SI KOS JE? NOGE NE ZVIL KI BI, NIZ GOR VIJEN, KI
    TI JE DONAŠAN! Prvi del nadebudno opominja temne sile, naj pazijo, da seme v posodi
    ostane brez plesnivosti. Drugi del pa je sporočilo, kako je treba brati ta napis, to je od spodaj
    navzgor. Presenetljiva podobnost besed v palindromu z besedami v knjižni slovenščini,
    slovenskih narečjih in drugih slovanskih jezikih kaže, da so bili slovanski jeziki v preteklosti
    neverjetno enoviti, tako da so bile venetščina, slovenetščina, praslovanščina, stara frigijščina,
    makedonščina v Dura Europos in zgodnja tračanščina verjetno en in isti jezik.
    Table of Abbreviations
    Acc. Accusative Mac. Macedonian
    Adj Adjective Masc. Masculine
    Adv. Adverb N. Noun
    Arch. Archaic Nom. Nominative
    Aux. Auxiliary v. Ntr. Neuter
    Blg. Bulgarian Obj. Object
    Br. Belorussian Ocsl. Old Church Slavonic
    Chk. Chakavian Croatian P. Polish
    Conj. Conjunctive Part. Participle
    Cr. Croatian Pl. Plural
    Csl. Church Slavonic Prep. Preposition
    Cz. Czech Pres. Present tense
    Dat. Dative Prn. Pronoun
    Dial Dialectal Prs. Person
    Fem. Feminine R. Russian
    Gen. Genitive Reflex. Reflexive
    Gsl. Generally Slavic SC. Serbo-Croatian
    Imp Imperative Sing. Singular
    Inf. Infinitive Subj. Subject
    Instr. Instrumental case Slk. Slovak
    Kash. Kashubian Sln. Slovene
    Lit. Literary Ukr. Ukranian
    Loc. Locative case Ul. Upper Lusatian
    L. Lusatian V. Verb
    Ll. Lower Lusatian